🍒 Blackjack Card Counting | The Ultimate Blackjack Strategy Guide

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Blackjack Card Counting | The Ultimate Blackjack Strategy Guide
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All about card counting. Learn about the most winning blackjack strategy, card counting! Find out how to be a winner!


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Blackjack Card Counting - Most Popular Card Counting Systems
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Blackjack Card Counting Systems - Principles, Benefits and Variations
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Hello, readers of SuperCasinoSites!
My name is Dan Howard.
I am one of the co-writers at this website and a person with a vast experience in playing roulette online and offline.
I have helped review many of the web-based casinos and roulette variations you can read about at SuperCasinoSites, with a focus on providing you with accurate information that can help you in finding blackjack card counting systems best casino websites.
Blackjack is a casino game based on conditional probability which is precisely what makes it beatable.
This means what happened in the past affects the probability of what is going to happen in the future.
Once a given card is dealt on the blackjack table, it cannot appear again until the dealer finishes the deck or shoe and reshuffles.
If you take a single deck of cards and pull out the Ace of hearts, for example, you cannot draw it again until you reintroduce it into the pack.
This peculiarity of blackjack renders it susceptible to.
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Card counters use systems which allow them to keep track of the cards that have already been removed from the deck or shoe.
This gives them an accurate idea of which cards remain to be played before the reshuffle.
Card counters capitalize on shoes that are rich in favorable cards by placing larger bets.
Conversely, when the remaining cards favor the house, smart players reduce the amounts they bet because they are at a disadvantage.
Card counting is not as complex as it appears.
There is no need to memorize the exact order in which the cards are dealt like many people seem to think.
You simply keep track of the ratio of high to low cards.
And to achieve this, you need to use a card counting system.
There are many blackjack review counting systems out there but what are the differences between them and which one should you choose?
The main reason is different systems attempt to solve different problems.
Some systems are quite easy to learn and use but they are not as effective in pitch games.
Others yield higher efficiency at the and but are not as effective or simple to use in shoe games with multiple decks.
Card counting systems can be classified on the basis of three main criteria — balance, level, and side counts.
Unbalanced Card Counting Systems Card counting systems are either balanced or unbalanced.
The most popular example of a which is the system of choice of many professional blackjack players.
Balanced systems like the Hi-Lo always start and end at zero.
If you take a standard deck and go through every single card in it, you will inevitably arrive at a running count of zero after you pull out the last card.
If you arrive at any other number in the end, you most certainly have made a mistake in the running count.
This is not the click when one uses an unbalanced counting system.
Unbalanced systems like Red Seven and KISS, for example, can start with a value other than 0 and have pivot points that indicate when the card counter must adjust the size of their bets.
Unbalanced Card Counting Systems Additional Tips Balanced systems are preferred by many professionals because they yield higher accuracy.
Unfortunately, increased efficiency inevitably comes at the expense of higher complexity.
Players who use balanced systems adjust their bet size in accordance with the count.
They must keep an accurate running count which is converted into a true count at a certain point.
The player should also memorize the correct deviations from basic strategy and spread their bets in accordance with the true count.
Apart from division, the player should be able to accurately determine the number of decks that are left in the shoe in order to perform the conversion from running to true count.
Unbalanced systems do away with deck estimation and division.
The player starts with what is called an Initial Running Count IRC and keeps it up until they reach the pivot which indicates the odds have shifted in their favor.
The player again builds up an edge on positive counts.
There are fewer calculations to perform with unbalanced counting systems but they are not as accurate and effective as the balanced ones.
Multi-Level Card Counting Systems Card counting systems can also be classified on the basis of their level.
Players who use single-level systems assign values of +1, -1, or 0 to the cards as they keep a running count.
The Hi-Lo is blackjack card counting systems single-level counting system where the high cards like Ace, 10, King, Queen, and Jack are assigned a value of -1 because they favor the player and the low cards deuce through 6 are counted as +1 because they favor the house.
The cards with denominations of 7, 8, and 9 are considered neutral and as such have no value, i.
Another popular example of a single-level system is Hi-Opt I where cards with denominations of 2, 7, 8, 9, and Ace are neutral and have a count value of 0.
Small cards 3, 4, 5, and 6 are detrimental to the player and again have a count value of +1 whereas only the 10s and the face cards are counted as -1.
Things get more complex when one introduces additional count values to certain cards as is the case with multiple-level systems like the Zen Count.
This is a level 2 system that was introduced by blackjack authority Arnold Snyder in his 1983 book Blackbelt in Blackjack.
Multi-Level Card Counting Systems Additional TipsThere is a second count value in this system since cards 2, 3, and 7 are counted as read more, cards 4, 5, and 6 are counted as +2, the 10s and the face cards are assigned a value of -2, and the Aces are counted as blackjack card counting systems />The 9s and 8s are again neutral and are counted as 0.
Introducing a second count value obviously increases the complexity of such systems but they yield more accurate and efficient results.
Keep in mind there are also level 3 and even level 4 systems but these are better left to the most experienced players.
The efficiency of these systems drops dramatically when you make mistakes.
Those who are new to card counting should stick to simpler, single-level systems like the Hi-Lo.
Systems with Side Counts for Aces You may have noticed from the previous section that more complex, multi-level systems like the above-mentioned Zen Count enable players to keep a side track of the Aces that have been dealt in addition to keeping a running count.
It makes sense that side counting Aces adds to the level of complexity of the system because you have to keep track of several things simultaneously.
However, being able to side-count Aces is very valuable, because the effect of removal of these cards is the most dramatic.
The Ace is easily the most valuable card in this game.
Without it, there will be no blackjacks to earn you higher payouts of 3 to 2.
Thus, side counting Aces allows you to make more accurate decisions for the insurance bet.
Factors to Consider When Choosing a Counting System When choosing a system, aspiring card counters should take into consideration several important factors.
It makes sense that your experience level should also impact your decision.
If you are an aspiring card counter, it would be best to that allows you to keep an accurate track of the cards.
The Betting Correlation The betting correlation shows players how efficient a given card counting system is when it comes to identifying advantageous betting situations.
When the sum total of all possible permutations of the cards that remain to be dealt gives you positive expectation when you play optimally, making a bet also offers you a positive expected value.
The higher the betting correlation of a given system, the better.
A system with a high betting correlation assigns count values that are very close to the actual effect of removal of the cards.
The Playing Efficiency The playing efficiency of a given card counting system tells you how effective this system is when it comes to determining the playing deviations from.
This is very important for professional blackjack players because a portion of their expected returns comes from departing from basic strategy on the basis of the knowledge they have about the changed composition of the remaining cards.
The higher the playing efficiency of the system, the better the results it yields.
The Insurance Correlation Another portion of the expected profits of the blackjack players comes from correctly identifying the situations when becomes a positive expectation bet.
This obviously happens during high positive counts when the shoe is rich in ten-value cards.
The dealer is more likely to have blackjacks under these conditions.
It makes sense that card counting systems that keep https://ipodxs.com/blackjack/strip-poker-and-blackjack-at-poker-moker.html counts of the Aces are more efficient in identifying the situations when the player needs to take insurance.
Insurance correlation affects both the betting correlation and the playing efficiency of the systems.
Keeping a side-count of the Aces improves the betting correlation because these are the most valuable cards from a betting perspective.
At the same time, side-counting Aces leads to a decrease in playing efficiency because these cards can have a value of either 1 or 11.
It also matters what type of tables one is playing since playing efficiency is more important in pitch blackjack while the betting correlation has more value in shoe games.
It follows that keeping a side count of the Aces is more important when you play multiple-deck blackjack dealt out of a shoe.
Some players keep side counts of other cards besides the Aces for the purpose of improving their overall playing efficiency.
This requires a good deal of experience, practice, and concentration because complexity increases exponentially with each side-count you add.
Check the table below for the precise betting correlation, playing efficiency, and insurance correlation of the most commonly used card counting systems.
Counting System System Type Betting Correlation Playing Efficiency Insurance Correlation Hi-Lo Balanced 0.
Keep in mind that if you choose to count with a balanced system, you will have to perform division accurately as you convert running count to true count.
If you struggle with this division, maybe it is a better idea to pick a simpler unbalanced system that relies on a pivot number to indicate modifications in bet size.
Note that unbalanced systems like the K-O may be simpler to use but they are not as efficient in pitch games, especially in comparison to balanced systems like the Hi-Lo.
Complex systems like Wong Halves and Hi-Opt II are naturally more powerful but there is more room for errors with them.
You cannot expect to count perfectly when your brain is overtasked and fatigued not to mention mastering such systems requires a lot more time and efforts.
At the end of the day, you decide which system works best for you.
Our advice is to choose one that gives you a good balance between efficiency, versatility, and ease of use.
We ourselves are not casino operators, do not offer any real-money games on our website, and cannot be held liable for the financial risks readers take when participating blackjack card counting systems real-money gambling activities.
Visitors of SuperCasinoSites should keep in mind gambling can be highly addictive and as such, should always be approached responsibly and with due measure.
If you or someone you know struggles with gambling addiction, we recommend you contact the free gambling helplines like those operated by organizations like.
Before you register and play at any of the casinos we review and recommend, do check the legal and regulatory frameworks pertaining to real-money online gambling in your country to ensure you are not acting in violation with its laws.

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In this article, we're going to cover the card counting basics, explain how different systems work, and provide you with blackjack tips along the ...


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Blackjack Card Counting Systems - Principles, Benefits and Variations
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Card Counting Card counting systems for Blackjack are compared here, along with their Card Values, Betting Blackjack card counting systems, Playing Efficiency, Insurance Correlation, Ease of Use and Type.
These terms are defined at the bottom of the page and are used to estimate the effectiveness of a Blackjack card counting strategy.
Ease of use is rated from 1 hardest to 10 easiest and is based strictly on my own opinions and a few phone calls from authors since I first published this page J.
Brief descriptions of Blackjack software can be found at.
Click on the Blackjack button on the left for more info on counting cards.
Card Counting Strategy Summary Blackjack card counting systems on a card counting strategy name in the table for more information.
Full counting tables for please click for source strategies can be found in of CV software products by permission of the various authors.
They are not included here due to copyright concerns.
Playing efficiency is particularly important in hand-held games one or two decks.
It is used to predict how well a counting system predicts good betting situations and can approach 1.
BC is particularly important in shoe games six or eight decks.
A point value of -9 for tens and +4 for blackjack card counting systems other cards would be perfect for https://ipodxs.com/blackjack/when-to-split-4s-in-blackjack.html if an Insurance bet should be placed.
Level 2 and 3 counting strategies are more efficient, but quite a bit more difficult for most people.
But this is blackjack card counting systems />For an outline of five blackjack card counting systems counting techniques, see.
That is the highest tag value Note: Playing Efficiency as defined by Griffin is not relevant to unbalanced counting systems and is only an estimate.
A list of the card counting index tables that can be found in CV products can be found at.
For Blackjack training see.

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Blackjack Card Counting Tutorial (Beat The Casino)

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Ten Count Card Counting System - Blackjack Betting Strategy
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Blackjack is one of the most frequently-played casino banking games in the world, which gained paramount popularity in the sixties and since then has become the target of many players, looking to win big.
It's a https://ipodxs.com/blackjack/como-ganar-en-blackjack-online.html of probability that also requires lots of skill, concentration and discipline.
Also known as twenty-one, is a game between players and the dealer which basically means they do not play against each other but compete against the dealer.
The player's objective is to collect a hand which is as close in number to 21 as possible but not exceeding it, hence see more name twenty-one.
The aim is to collect a higher total point than the dealer but it should not go over 21.
The players and the dealer take turns until all cards have been dealt.
The game can include several players, each competing against the dealer.
Usually two to eight standard decks, containing 52 cards are used.
Cards are dealt until 17 or more points are reached.
If the dealer and the player both have an equal score, the latter neither loses, nor wins.
The best combination consists of an ace which can be counted either as 1 or an 11 and a ten-point card Queen, Jack, King and a 10.
In case both have a hand of 21, blackjack card counting systems player receives their bet back.
This is a probability game, however using angreatly increases the player's chances of winning against the house.
This is the most commonly applied strategy.
Basic Strategy The is suitable for recreational players who partake in the game just for fun.
In fact, learning and practising the basic strategy is essential in this game and it's even advisable to memorise it.
This minimises one's loss rates and at least partially eliminates the advantage the house has over less skilled players.
The basic strategy may vary, depending on the number of decks that are used in the game.
It is calculated on the basis of the cards a player is dealt, as well as of the card the dealer is shown.
In some cases the up card of the dealer may help players decide what their next step should be.
For instance if the up card's value of the dealer is from 2 to 6 the player may hit.
This strategy helps players determine how to approach each situation that ensues on the blackjack table as it is based on mathematical probabilities in the respective situation.
However, keep in mind the strategy may differ, depending on the rules of each game — sometimes for example players may not be allowed to split pairs in which case they should resort to another, more suitable basic strategy which complies with the game's specifications.
In most cases the here strategy is presented in the form of a chart which https://ipodxs.com/blackjack/jeu-le-craps.html when players should stand, hit, double or split a pair, depending on the hand of the dealer but memorising the scheme is a better idea as most casinos don't allow players to bring the chart in and use it on the table.
Advantage Play Skilled and experienced blackjack players don't have to resort to using the basic strategy chart.
More so because their main objective is not gaining experience or playing recreationally but winning against the house and thus benefiting financially from the blackjack game.
Such players employ other techniques which allow them to gain advantage over the house.
Such methods are known as advantage play and are perfectly legal and safe as long as the player does not gain a considerable advantage over the house's edge.
Otherwise the player may be added to the casino's blacklist and a complete ban from the casino is also a possible outcome.
However, read article behaviour and gestures while at the blackjack table may also be indicative of whether or not the player is using an advanced play strategy.
Basically the term advantage play refers to a number of practices the player can use to increase the mathematical probability of collecting a good hand and thus winning against the house.
The most common technique, employed by advanced players is card counting but it requires a good amount of time and concentration to master.
What is Card Counting?
As the dealer exposes cards from the shoe which have already been dealt, card counting makes it possible for the player to infer what are the remaining cards, left to be dealt and decide upon their further course of action.
Thus, the player is able to determine whether or not he or she has an advantage over the dealer and act accordingly, for example by placing a larger bet.
Keeping track of dealt cards is by no means illegal as it is based chiefly on statistics and mathematical probability.
After each round there are fewer cards left in the remaining deck and a correct count allows players to determine the value of the cards that remain to be dealt.
On the other hand, the greater the number of players participating in the game, the more difficult it is to keep track of the dealt cards.
An experienced player should be able to pay close attention to the cards dealt to other participants in the game as well, which further increases the complexity of this strategy.
In the beginning casinos used only one standard deck of cards in the blackjack game.
However, as keeping track on dealt cards from a single deck is easier, and thus helps players to gain advantage over the house, at present time most casinos resort to using up to eight decks in the shoe.
Furthermore, card counting may be essential for skilled blackjack players as their chances of winning greatly depend on the value of the cards obviously.
Face cards such as kings, queens and jacks are of a 10-point value; the Ace, on the other hand, is a special case as its value can be either 1 or 11, so respectively the Ace can also be a high-value card.
for blackjack restaurant near me recommend makes the Ace special is that players are allowed to determine its value, depending on the situation — they can either use it as a 1 or 11.
For instance, if the player has been dealt an Ace, a 6 and a 10, they should count the Ace as 1 because otherwise the total value of the hand will go over 21, resulting in a loss for the player.
This is important as being dealt higher-value cards, increases players' chance of winning while lower-value cards are more beneficial for the dealer as they decrease the chance of pulling out a face card and going over 21.
Even though card counting is not considered illegal, most dealers are wary of the practice and a problem might ensue.
Because of this keeping an accurate track of dealt cards is only one aspect of the card counting strategy, what's also important is to do it as inconspicuously as possible.
This requires practice and above all composure.
Card Counting Systems Choosing a suitable card counting system largely depends on the degree of skill and experience of the players.
There are simpler counting systems which are more suitable for beginners, as well as more complex ones which can be employed effectively only by expert players.
The following systems of counting cards are arranged in accordance with their level of complexity, starting from the more simpler ones and proceeding with those that are more elaborate.
Thorp's Ten-Count System Let's start from the very beginning.
blackjack javafx first card counting system ever, blackjack llc introduced in the sixties when blackjack gained more popularity.
The man behind it is Edward Thorp, a professor of mathematics with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Thorp systematised the so called Ten Count system in his book Beat the Dealer.
Today, his system is used in specific cases as it was originally created for a single-deck blackjack games while at the present moment most casinos employ more than one deck to decrease the probability of players counting the cards correctly.
However, it's suitable for beginners who wish to practice and improve their skills.
What's the principle of Thorp's system?
The cards are counted throughout the game and special attention is paid to their value.
This helps players decide when to bet and and how high their stakes should be.
The higher the total sum of the dealt cards is, the more 10-value cards have remained in the deck.
This situation is favourable for players so they might opt for placing a higher bet.
Here's how Thorp counted the cards: the Ace with a value of 1 and cards from 1 through 9 are counted as + 4; the 10, Jack, Queen and King are counted as -9, so basically +4 and -9 are the only values the player should remember which makes keeping track of the dealt cards easier.
Let's say the player have kept track of the following cards in the course of a game: 5, 2, Ace, Queen, 3, 4, 8, 9, 7, King.
This means the cards should be counted as follows 4, 4, 4, -9, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, -9.
It helps neutralise, though only partially, the advantage the house has over players.
At the beginning of the first deck, starting from 0, add the number 1 for each dealt 5-value card you notice.
When an Ace is dealt, subtract 1 from the sum.
If the final result is equal to two or surpasses it, you can double the amount you've bet, however, when it's equal to one or lower, avoid placing high bets.
As this system takes into consideration only two card values, it's much easier to keep track of.
When using this method, it would be a good idea to double your bet only after a win to make your card counting less conspicuous.
Even though it helps players gain advantage over the dealers, their edge is relatively small as it usually consists of only 1%.
The Hi-Lo System The Hi-Lo system was proposed in 1963 by Harvey Dubner and is based on Thorp's Ten-Count.
The strategy is suitable for blackjack card counting systems as well as for intermediate players.
In fact it's one of the most frequently used card counting systems in the opinion blackjack game tips really because it's relatively simple and easy to memorise.
It's actually quite similar to what Thorp proposed as each card's value is assigned with a specific number.
The in-between cards with values 7,8 and 9 are marked as 0.
Counting the cards begins with the first dealt card from the deck.
Now let's illustrate this with the following example: assume the player have tracked these cards — King, 6, 10, 2, Jack.
These are marked as -1,+1,-1 ,+1, -1, so the total is -1.
The higher the positive number, the more high-value cards are in the remaining deck.
If the number is in the negative, this means most face cards with a value of 10 have already been dealt.
In our example we have a running count of -1.
If your running count is -1 and there are three decks to be dealt in the shoe, your true count is -0,33 or so.
Beginners usually loath this part but the good news is they don't have to be precise, a rough estimate will suffice to determine one's chances.
It's advisable to practice with a single deck of cards and master the Hi-Lo system of Dubner, prior to proceeding with more complex card counting systems.
The Knock Out Count System Blackjack card counting systems is yet another card counting system suitable for beginners and intermediate players.
Also known as the K-O, it was first introduced in a book called Knock Out Blackjack — the Easiest Card Counting System Ever Devised, written by Fuchs and Vancura.
Again cards are assigned with a value and in the process of dealing them, the player is supposed to keep track and add or subtract the respective value.
Similarly to the Hi-Lo method, 10s, Aces, Queens, Jacks and King go by the value of -1, while those from 2 to 7 are assigned as +1.
The system is obviously not balanced as in the end after all cards have been dealt, the final count won't amount to a zero.
This is an example of the Knock Out System: the player has tracked 4, 3, Jack, 9, 7 and Queen.
This sequence of cards corresponds to +1, +1, -1, 0, +1, -1.
The final calculation of this count is +1.
Generally, it's advisable to start raising one's bet if the count is +2, so in the case this would not be a good idea.
The system is easy to memorise and convenient to use, but unfortunately less accurate than more advanced card counting methods like those that follow.
The Red Seven Count The Red Seven is another card counting system, beginners can easily master, as it too is one-level.
The Red Seven doubling down blackjack crossword built on the principle high versus low cards.
The higher-value cards such as tens and Aces, that are more advantageous to players, are assigned as -1, as after each hit fewer of those are left in the remaining deck.
Cards, lower in value from 2 to 6 are marked as +1.
Similarly to the Knock Out system, neutral 8s and 9s are marked by a zero.
Colour here also plays a role, in relation to 7s.
If the 7 is red in colour, it is treated as a low-value card and is thus marked as +1.
If it's black, however, the 7 is considered neutral and as such is again noted with a zero.
This method of card counting, though simple, also requires some practice.
What makes the 7s' values easier to remember is the name of the system itself as Red 7s are assigned with a positive value, while black 7s' worth equals zero.
Another thing to take into account is that the Red Seven system is unbalanced too blackjack card counting systems if you count all the pieces in a 52-card deck, your final count won't be a zero but +2.
There are two ways to even the imbalance out, depending on the number of decks dealt in the game.
If you're playing a single-deck blackjack which is unlikely in a casino but still can be used as a method of practising one's counting skillsyou should begin your running count from -2.
In the case of a six-deck blackjack, players should multiply the number of decks by -2 and respectively start with a running count of -12.
The higher the final count, the better for the players.
Avoid doubling or placing higher bets when the number is in the negative — do it when your final count is about +15, there is a good chance to win the round.
An example of the Red Seven system: 3, 4, Jack, 7 Red, 9, 6, 8 are the cards the player has been keeping a running count of.
These correspond to the following values: +1, +1, -1, +1, 0, +1, 0 and a running count of +4.
In case there are 2 decks in the shoe, remaining to be dealt, your total count will be +2, a positive number, though not very high but after all the example consists of only six counted cards.
The Omega II System Let's proceed with an intermediate level system, developed by Bruce Carlson, namely the Blackjack card counting systems II which Carlson first introduced in his book Blackjack for Blood in 2001.
What makes it more complex, compared to the previous card counting methods is that the Omega II is a multi-level system.
Some cards are counted as two-point, others as one-point.
Its efficiency is much higher but at the same time this method is more difficult to master and as such, it requires more concentration, time and practice.
According to the Omega II system, the cards 2,3 and 7 have a value of +1, while other low cards such as 4, 5 and 6 are worth +2.
The 9 is equal to -1 while 10 and the face cards King, Queen, Jack are marked with -2.
The Aces and the eights are counted as 0 and it would be advisable to keep a separate count of the Aces, dealt during the game.
This is a balanced card counting system, meaning that if the player manages to keep a correct track of all cards from the deck, he or she will be come up with a zero when all cards have been dealt.
Similarly to the Hi-Lo system of Dubner, the player should keep a running count in the course of the game and then determine the true count by dividing the running count to the number of decks, remaining in the shoe.
Here's an example to illustrate this more elaborate, two-level system: Imagine you've kept a running count of the following cards 2, 6, Queen, 4, 8.
These correspond to +1, +2, -2, +2, 0 and a running count of +3.
In case there are two decks, remaining in the shoe, the total count so far is 1,5.
The Wong Halves System This is by far the most elaborate system on the list as it's a three-level card counting method, introduced and developed by Stanford Wong.
Wong published his Halves system in his book Professional Blackjack and as the title itself suggests it's rather advanced, so card-counting beginners will hardly make any head or tail of it.
Developed in 1975, the Wong Halves system requires a good amount of persistence and practice but once you master it, it can prove to be very accurate.
Like the Omega II, this also is a balanced system which means once all cards in the deck have been dealt, the final result of your calculations should amount vegas downtown blackjack gold review zero.
Players are advised to calculate their true counts after each deck has been dealt.
What further increases the difficulty of the system is that some cards are attributed a fraction value and of course, calculating fractions in one's head may prove to be rather taxing to some players.
To avoid fractions, players can double the values of ½.
Again the running count should be converted to a true count to determine what are the odds of winning.
It would be a good idea to calculate the final count after each deck is dealt — this is easier than calculating a final count, based on several dealt decks of cards.
When the final count is higher, chances of winning the hand increase and the player should bet higher.
When the count is lower they better restrain from placing the high bet.
Conclusion Of course, there is a number of other card counting systems, not mentioned here.
Some are simple, others less so.
Other balanced systems that begin and end at 0 are the Zen system, the Highly Optimum, the Upton Advanced Point Count, the Revere Point Count and Canfield Master.
In finality, players must recognise the fact card counting is efficient but it won't do without a sufficient amount of practice, concentration and patience.
This technique of gaining an advantage over the house's edge blackjack tips not end with memorising the values of the cards.
It's advisable to start practising with a single deck, turning one card at a time.
Only then you can progress to turning over two cards to count them as a pair.
While he already knew what.
The major industry provider this week revealed.
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The face cards, or big cards, 10, jack, queen, king, and ace are all given a -1 value. This Blackjack Card Counting method tells the player what cards are predominantly remaining in the deck, High cards or Low cards.


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A blackjack game in progress Card counting is a casino strategy used primarily in the family of casino games to determine whether the next hand is likely to give a probable advantage to the player or to the dealer.
Card counters are a class ofwho attempt to decrease the inherent house edge by keeping a running tally of all high and low valued cards seen by the player.
Card counting allows players to bet more with less risk when the count gives an advantage as well as minimize losses during an unfavorable count.
Card counting also provides the ability to alter playing decisions based on the composition of remaining cards.
Card counting, also referred to asoften refers to obtaining a sufficient count on the number, distribution and high-card location of cards in such as or to optimize the winning of tricks.
The most common variations of card counting in blackjack are based on statistical evidence that high cards especially aces and 10's, and to a lesser extent 9's benefit the player more than the dealer, while the low cards, 3's, 4's, 6's, and especially 5's, and to a lesser extent 2's and 7's help the dealer while hurting the player.
The dealer cannot double.
Thus a dealer holding 12-16 will bust this web page time if the next card drawn is a 10, making this card essential to track when card counting.
Contrary to the popular myth, card counters do not need unusual mental abilities to count cards, because they are not tracking and memorizing specific cards.
Instead, card counters assign a point score to each card they see that estimates the value of that card, and then they track the sum of these values — a process called keeping a "running count.
Systems Basic card counting assigns a positive, negative, or zero value to each card value available.
When a card of that value is dealt, the count is adjusted by that card's counting value.
Low cards increase the count as they increase the percentage of high cards in the remaining set of cards, while high cards decrease it for the opposite reason.
For instance, the Hi-Lo system subtracts one for each dealt 10, Jack, Queen, King or Ace, and adds one for any value 2-6.
Values 7-9 are how to up blackjack card game a value of zero and therefore do not affect the count.
The goal of a card counting system is to assign point values that roughly correlate to a card's Effect of Removal EOR.
The EOR is the estimated effect of removing a given card from play, and the resulting impact on the house advantage.
The player may gauge the effect of removal for all cards dealt, and assess the current house advantage of a game based on the remaining cards.
As larger ratios between point values are used to create better correlation to actual EOR with the goal of increasing the efficiency of a system, such systems use more different numbers and are broken into classes depending on such as level 1, level 2, level 3, and so on, with regard to the ratio between the highest and lowest assigned point values.
The High-Low system is considered a level-one count, because the running count never increases or decreases by more than a single, predetermined value.
A multilevel count, such as Zen Count, Wong Halves or Hi-Opt II, makes finer distinctions between card values to gain greater play accuracy.
Advanced players might additionally maintain a side count separate count of specific cards, such as a side count Aces, to deal with situations where the best count for betting accuracy differs from the best count for playing accuracy.
The disadvantage of higher-level counts is that keeping track of more information may detract from the ability to play quickly and accurately.
Some card counters might earn more money by playing a simple count quickly—more hands per hour played—than by playing a complex count slowly.
The following table illustrates a few ranking systems for card counting.
Larger ratios between point values can better correlate to actual EOR, but add complexity to the system.
Counting systems may be referred to as "level 1", "level 2", etc.
The ideal system is a system that is usable by the player and offers the highest average dollar return per period of time when dealt at a fixed rate.
With this in mind, systems aim to achieve a balance of efficiency in three categories: Betting correlation BC When the sum of all the permutations of the undealt cards offer a positive expectation to a player using optimal playing strategy, there is a positive expectation to a player placing a bet.
A system's BC gauges how effective a system is at informing the user of this situation.
Playing efficiency PE A portion of the expected profit comes from modifying playing strategy based on the known altered composition of cards.
For this reason, a system's PE gauges how effectively it informs the player to modify strategy according to the actual composition of undealt cards.
A system's PE is important when the effect of PE has a large impact on total gain, as in single- and double-deck games.
Insurance correlation IC A portion of expected gain from counting cards comes from taking the insurance bet, which becomes profitable at high counts.
An increase in IC will offer additional value to a card counting system.
Some strategies count the ace ace-reckoned strategies and some do not ace-neutral strategies.
Including aces in the count improves betting correlation since the ace is the most valuable card in the deck for betting purposes.
However, since the ace can either be counted as one or eleven, including an ace in the count decreases the accuracy of playing efficiency.
Since PE is more important in single- and double-deck games, and BC is more important in shoe games, counting the ace is more important in shoe games.
One way to deal with such tradeoffs is to ignore the ace blackjack card counting systems yield higher PE while keeping a side count which is used to detect addition change in EV which the player will use to detect additional betting opportunities which ordinarily would not be indicated by the primary card counting system.
The most commonly side counted card is the ace since it is the most important card in terms of achieving a balance of BC and PE.
In theory a player could keep a side count of every card and achieve a near 100% PE, however methods involving additional side counts for PE become more complex at an exponential rate as you add more side counts and the ability of blackjack card counting systems human mind is quickly overtasked and unable to make the necessary computations.
Without any side counts, PE can approach 70%.
Since there is the potential to create an overtaxing demand on the human mind while using a card counting system another important design consideration is the ease of use.
The Running count is the running total of each card's assigned value.
When using Balanced count such as the Hi-Lo systemthe Running count is converted into a "True count," which takes into consideration the number of decks used.
With Hi-Lo, the True count is essentially the Running count divided by the number of decks that have not yet been dealt; this can be calculated by division or approximated with an average card count per round times the number of rounds dealt.
However, many variations of True count calculation exist.
Back-counting, also known as "Wonging," consists of standing behind a blackjack table that other players are playing on, and counting the cards as they are dealt.
The player will enter or "Wong in" to the game when the count reaches a point at which the player has an advantage.
Some back-counters prefer to flat-bet, and only bet the same amount once they have entered the game.
Some players will stay at the table until the game is shuffled, or they may "Wong out" or leave when the count reaches a level at which they no longer have an advantage.
Back-counting is generally done on shoe games, of 4, 6, or 8 decks, although it can be done on pitch games of 1 or 2 decks.
The reason for this is that the count is more stable in a shoe game, so a player will be less likely to sit down for one or two hands and then have to get up.
In addition, many casinos do not allow "mid-shoe entry" in single or double deck games which makes Wonging impossible.
Another reason is that many casinos exhibit more effort to thwart card counters on their pitch games than on their shoe games, as a counter has a smaller advantage on an average shoe game than in a pitch game.
Advantages Back-counting is different from traditional card-counting, in that the player does not play every hand he sees.
This offers several advantages.
For one, the player does not play hands at which he does not have a statistical advantage.
This increases the total advantage of the player.
Another advantage is that the player does not have to change their bet size as much, or at all if they choose.
Large variations in bet size are one way that casinos detect card counters, and this is eliminated with back-counting.
Disadvantages There are several disadvantages to back-counting.
One is that the player frequently does not stay at the table long enough to earn from the casino.
Another disadvantage is that some players may become irritated with players who enter in the middle of a game, and superstitiously believe that this interrupts the "flow" of the cards.
Their resentment may not merely be superstition, though, as this practice will negatively impact the other players at the table, because with one fewer player at the table when the card composition becomes unfavorable, the other players will play through more hands under those conditions as they will use up fewer cards per hand, and similarly, they will play fewer hands in the rest of the card shoe if the advantage player slips in during the middle of the shoe when the cards become favorable because with one more player, more of those favorable cards will be used up per hand.
This negatively impacts the other players, whether they are counting cards or not.
Lastly, a player who hops in and out of games may attract unwanted attention from casino personnel, and may be detected as a card-counter.
Group counting While a single player can maintain their own advantage with back-counting, card counting is most often used by teams of players to maximize their advantage.
In such a team, some players called "spotters" will sit at a table and play the game at the table minimum, while keeping a count basically doing the back "counting".
When the count is significantly high, the spotter will discreetly signal another player, known as a "big player," that the count is high the table is "hot".
The big player blackjack card counting systems then "Wong in" and wager vastly higher sums up to the table maximum while the count is high.
When the count "cools off" or the shoe is shuffled resetting the countthe big player will "Wong article source and look for other counters who are signaling a high count.
This was the system used by thewhose story was in turn the inspiration for the Canadian movie which was later re-made into the version.
The main advantage of group play is that the team can count several tables while a single back-counting player can usually only track one table.
This allows big players to move from table to table, maintaining the high-count advantage without being out of action very long.
The disadvantages include requiring multiple spotters who can keep an accurate count, splitting the "take" among all members of the team, requiring spotters to play a table regardless of the count using only basic strategy, these players will lose money long-termand requiring signals, which can alert pit bosses.
A simple variation removes the loss of having spotters play; the spotters simply watch the table instead of playing and signal big players to Wong in and out as normal.
The disadvantages of this variation are reduced ability of the spotter and big player to communicate, reduced comps as the spotters are not sitting down, and vastly increased suspicion, as blackjack is not generally considered a spectator sport in casinos except among those actually playing unlikeand which have larger displays and so tend to attract more spectators.
A mathematical principle called the indicates that bet increases should be proportional to the player advantage.
In practice, this means that the higher the count, the more a player should bet on each hand in order to take advantage of the player edge.
Using this principle, a card counter may elect to vary his bet size in proportion to the advantage dictated by a count creating what is called a "Bet ramp" according to the principles of the Kelly criterion.
A bet ramp is a betting plan with a specific bet size tied to each true count value in such a way that the player is betting proportionally to the player advantage with aims to maximize overall bankroll growth.
Taken to its ultimate conclusion, the Kelly criterion would demand that a player not bet anything at all when the deck does not offer a positive expectation; the "Wonging" strategy described above implements this.
Historically, blackjack played with a perfect basic strategy offered a house edge of less than 0.
As more casinos have switched games to dealer hits soft-17 and blackjack pays 6:5, the average house edge in Nevada has increased to 1%.
A typical card counter who ranges bets appropriately in a game with six decks will have an advantage of approximately 1% over the casino.
Advantages of up to 2.
This amount varies based on the counter's skill level, penetration 1 — fraction of pack cut offand the betting spread player's maximum bet divided by minimum bet.
The variance in blackjack is high, so generating a sizable profit can take hundreds of hours of play.
The deck will only have a positive enough count for the player to raise bets 10%-35% of the time depending on rules, penetration and strategy.
Under one set of circumstance, a player with a 1-15 unit bet spread with only one-deck cut off of a six-deck game will enjoy an advantage how many decks in blackjack casino as much as 1.
Therefore, see more is highly advisable for counters to set aside a large dedicated bankroll; one popular dictates a bankroll of 100 times the maximum bet per hand.
Another aspect of the probability of card counting is that, at higher counts, the player's probability of winning a hand is only slightly changed and still below 50%.
The player's edge over the house on such hands does not come from the player's probability of winning the hands.
Instead it comes from the increased probability of blackjacks, increased gain and benefit from doubling, splitting and surrender, and the insurance side bet, which becomes profitable at high counts.
A range of card counting devices are available but are deemed to be illegal in most U.
Card counting with the mind is legal, although casinos blackjack card counting systems the US reserve the right to remove anyone they suspect of using the technique.
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a of the subject.
You maydiscuss the issue on theoras appropriate.
December 2010 Card counting is not illegal under British law, nor is it under federal, state, or local laws in the United States provided that no external card counting device or person assists the player in counting cards.
Still, casinos object to the practice, and try to prevent it, banning players believed to be counters.
In their pursuit to identify card counters, casinos sometimes misidentify and ban players suspected of counting cards even if they do not.
In 1979a inductee, filed a lawsuit against an Atlantic City casino, claiming that casinos did not have the right to ban skilled players.
The agreed, ruling that "the state's control of Atlantic City's casinos is so complete that only the New Jersey Casino Control Commission has the power to make rules to exclude skillful players.
As they are unable to ban counters even when identified, Atlantic City casinos have increased the use of.
Detection Monitoring player behavior to assist with detecting the card counters falls into the hands of the on-floor casino personnel "" and casino-surveillance personnel, who may use video surveillance "the " as well as computer analysis, to try to spot playing behavior indicative of card counting.
Early counter-strategies featured the dealers learning to count the cards themselves to recognize the patterns in the players.
Many casino chains keep databases of players that they consider undesirable.
Casinos can also subscribe to databases of advantage players offered by agencies likeBiometrica and OSN Oregon Surveillance Network.
Griffin Investigations filed for bankruptcy protection in 2005 after losing a libel lawsuit filed by professional gamblers.
In 2008 all Chapter 11 payments were said to be up to date and all requirements met, and information was being supplied using and.
For successful card counters, therefore, skill at "cover" behavior, to hide counting and avoid "drawing heat" and possibly being barred, may be just as important as playing skill.
Detection of card counters will be confirmed after a player is first suspected of counting cards; when seeking card counters, casino employees, whatever their position, could be alerted by many things that are most common when related to card counting but not common for other players.
Extremely aggressive plays such as splitting tens and doubling soft 19 and 20 are often called out to the pit to notify them because they are telltale signs of not only card counters but.
Technology for detecting card counters Several semi-automated systems have been designed to aid detection of card counters.
The system now discontinued scanned card values as the cards were dealt.
The Intelligent Shoe system also scans card values as cards exit the shoe.
Software called Bloodhound and Protec 21 allow voice input of card and bet values, in an attempt to blackjack card counting systems the player edge.
A more recent innovation is the use of signatures embedded within the casino chips so that the table can automatically track bet amounts.
Automated card-reading technology has known abuse potential in that it can be used to simplify the practice of preferential shuffling—having the dealer reshuffle the cards whenever the odds favor the players.
To comply with licensing regulations, some blackjack protection systems have been designed to delay access to real-time data on remaining cards in the shoe.
Other vendors consider real-time notification to surveillance that a shoe is "hot" to be an important product feature.
With card values, play decisions, and bet decisions conveniently accessible, the casino can analyze bet variation, play accuracy, and play variation.
The simplest way a card counter makes money is to bet more when he has an edge.
While playing back the tapes of a recent session of play, software can generate a scatter plot of the amount bet versus the count at the time the bet was made and find the trendline that best fits the scattered points.
If the player is not counting cards, there will be no trend; his bet variation and the count variation will not consistently correlate.
If the player is counting and varying bets according to the count, there will be a trend whose slope reflects the player's average edge from this technique.
When card counters vary from basic strategy, they do so in response to the count, to gain an additional edge.
Software can verify whether there is a pattern to play variation.
Of particular interest is whether the player sometimes when the count is positive takes insurance and stands on 16 versus a dealer 10, but plays differently when the count is negative.
Countermeasures Casinos have spent a great amount of effort and money in trying to thwart card counters.
This reduces the click at this page of card counting.
This also includes changing a table's stakes.
Other jurisdictions such as limit the countermeasures a casino can take against skilled players.
Casinos have resorted to physical assaults to deter card counters.
Assaults are less common than in the early days of card visit web page />Some countermeasures result in disadvantages for the casino.
Frequent or complex shuffling, for example, reduces the amount of playing time and consequently the house winnings.
Some casinos use automatic shuffling machines to counter the loss of time, with some models of machines shuffling one set of cards while another is in play.
Others, known as continuous shuffle machines CSMsallow the dealer to simply return used cards to a single shoe to allow playing with no interruption.
Because CSMs essentially force minimal penetration, they greatly reduce the advantage of traditional counting techniques.
In most online blackjack card counting systems the deck is shuffled at the start of each new round, ensuring the house always has the advantage.
American is considered the father of card counting.
His 1962 book, Beat the Dealer, outlined various betting and playing strategies for optimal blackjack play.
Although mathematically sound, some of the techniques described no longer apply, as took counter-measures such as no longer dealing to the last card.
Also, the counting system described 10-count is harder to use and less profitable than the point-count systems that have been developed since.
A history of how counting developed can be seen in David Layton's documentary film.
Even before the publication of Beat the Dealer, however, a small number of professional card counters were beating blackjack games in Las Vegas and casinos elsewhere.
One of these early card counters was Jess Marcum, who is described in documents and interviews with professional gamblers of the time as having developed the first full-fledged point-count system.
Another documented pre-Thorp card counter was a professional gambler named Joe Bernstein, who is described in the 1961 book I Want To Quit Winners, by Reno casino owner Harold Smith, as an Ace counter feared throughout the casinos of Nevada.
And in the 1957 book Playing Blackjack to Win, Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel, and James McDermott known among card counters as "The Four Horsemen" published the first accurate blackjack basic strategy and a rudimentary card-counting system, devised solely with the aid of crude —what used to be called "adding machines.
Ken Uston, though perhaps the most famous card-counter through his 60 Minutes television appearance and his books, tended to overstate his winnings, as documented by players who worked with him, including Al Francesco and team member Darryl Purpose.
In the 1970s and 1980s, as computing power grew, more advanced and more difficult card-counting systems came into favor.
Many card counters agree, however, that a simpler and less advantageous system that can be played flawlessly for hours earns an overall higher return than a more complex system prone to user error.
Teams This article includes abut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient.
Please help to this article by more precise citations.
May 2012 In the 1970s Ken Uston was the first to write about a tactic of card counting he called the Big Player Team.
The book was based on his experiences working as a "big player" BP on Al Francesco's teams.
In big-player blackjack teams a number of card counters, called "spotters," are dispatched to tables around a casino, where their responsibility is to keep track of the count and signal to the big player when the count indicates a player blackjack card counting systems />The big player then joins the game at that table, placing maximum bets at a player advantage.
When the spotter indicates that the count has dropped, he again signals the BP to leave the table.
By jumping from table to table as called in by spotters, the BP avoids all play at a disadvantage.
In addition, since the BP's play appears random and irrational, he avoids detection by the casinos.
The spotters, who are blackjack card counting systems the actual counting, are not themselves changing their bet size or strategy, so they are relatively inconspicuous.
With this style of play, a number of blackjack teams have cleared millions of dollars through the years.
Well-known blackjack teams with documented earnings in the millions include those run by Al Francesco, Ken Uston, Tommy Hyland, various groups from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, most recently, a team called "The Greeks.
See also the Canadian movie and the American moviewhich was based on Mezrich's book.
The publication of Ken Uston's books and of his landmark lawsuits against the casinos, both stimulated the growth of blackjack teams Hyland's team and the first MIT team were formed in Atlantic City shortly after the publication of Million Dollar Blackjack and increased casino awareness of the methods of blackjack teams, making it more difficult for such teams to operate.
Hyland and Francesco soon switched to a form of shuffle tracking called effective? blackjack strategy hit chart speaking sequencing.
This made it more difficult for casinos to detect when team members were playing with an advantage.
In 1994, members of the Hyland team were arrested for Ace sequencing and blackjack team play at in .
It was documented in court that Nevada casinos with ownership stakes in the Windsor casino were instrumental in the decision to prosecute team members on cheating charges.
However, the ruled that the players' conduct was not cheating, but merely the use of intelligent strategy.
Shuffling machines Main article: Automatic shuffling machines ASMs or batch shufflersthat shuffle decks, interfere with the shuffle tracking variation of card counting by hiding the shuffle.
Continuous shuffling machines CSMsthat partially shuffle used cards back into the "shoe" after every hand, interfere with card counting.
CSMs result in very shallow penetration number of seen cards greatly reducing the effectiveness of card counting.
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